Many have heard a simplified version of the Rosa Parks story, as an isolated incident in which she refused to give up her seat because she was tired, ultimately. Rosa Louise McCauley Parks ( – ) was an African American civil Parks is famous for her refusal on December 1, to obey bus driver James. --Mrs. Rosa Parks—. Parks, known as "the mother of the civil rights movement," walked into history on December 1, when she refused to give up her seat.
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ROSA PARKS: A WOMAN WHO CHANGED THE. UNITED STATES. The Civil Rights Movement not only changed the United States but it also inspired. PDF | On Sep 1, , Auden Schendler and others published Making Rosa Parks. by Rosa Parks and Jim Haskins. "You're Under Arrest". When I got off from work that evening of December 1, I went to Court Square as usual to catch the.
After the arrest of Rosa Parks, black people of Montgomery and sympathizers of other races organized and promoted a boycott of the city bus line that lasted days. Martin Luther King, Jr. Contingent with the protest in Montgomery, others took shape throughout the south and the country.
They took form as sit-ins, eat-ins, swim-ins, and similar causes. Parks moved to Detroit, Michigan in Parks, from to Elaine Eason Steele in honor of her husband, Raymond The purpose is to motivate and direct youth not targeted by other programs to achieve their highest potential.
Rosa Parks sees the energy of young people as a real force for change. It is among her most treasured themes of human priorities as she speaks to young people of all ages at schools, colleges, and national organizations around the world. Youth, ages 11 through 17, meet and talk with Mrs. Parks and other national leaders as they participate in educational and historical research throughout the world.
Where are we going? As a role model for youth she was stimulated by their enthusiasm to learn as much about her life as possible. A modest person, she always encourages them to research the lives of other contributors to world peace.
In September President William J. Published Act no. She is the first living person to be honored with a holiday. She was voted by Time Magazine as one of the most Influential people of the 20th century. A Museum and Library is being built in her honor, in Montgomery, AL and will open in the fall of the year ground breaking April 21, Such an analysis is important in order to evaluate how these historical figures are portrayed in historical narratives that often appear in the social studies curriculum.
Therefore, the purpose of this research is to outline similarities and differences between Jennings and Parks in order to determine whether these historical parallels are accurate. The guiding question of this research is: Among these commonalities include their family upbringing, experiences with racial violence and segregation, and the images they embodied in publicizing racial discrimination on public conveyances. First, both women were born to families of humble origin.
Although her parents were involved in prominent organizations in the free black community, they lived modest lives. Frederick Douglass noted that her father Thomas L. Jennings fought in the War of , apprenticed as a tailor, and was a boarding house operator. Thomas and Elizabeth Jen- nings had four children, one them being Elizabeth, Jr.
Rosa Parks was born into a working class family in Tuskegee, Alabama, in Correspondence between her and her father James McCauley dated indicates at some point they reconnected. She assumed many responsibilities as a child; tending to her brother, aiding her grandmother in the kitchen, and helping her grandfather who suffered from rheumatism.
Second, Parks and Jennings had intimate experiences with threats of violence that stemmed from the legacy of slavery. African Americans were denied the right to vote, hold public office, testify in court, enter interracial marriages, and have access public facilities such as theaters, mass transit and schools Gellman She stated in her testimony, which was read to her church congregation: He [the conductor] then said I should come out and he would put me out … he took hold of me and I took hold of the window sash and held on; he pulled me until he broke my grasp….
Parks also lived with fear of imminent racial violence growing up in Alabama. She stated: The KKK moved through the country where we lived burning churches, schools, flogging, and killing.
Grandfather stayed up to wait for them to come into our house. He kept his shotgun within reach at all times. My aunt and cousins came to our house at night.
We could not … go to bed at night. The doors and windows were boarded and nailed tight from the inside. I stayed awake many nights keeping vigil with Grandpa Parks, nd.
Third, Jennings and Parks were involved in Black Freedom activism before their publicized protests to transit segregation.
As a young woman, Jennings was associated with abolitionist causes as an organist at her church. Consequently, Jennings must have been aware of her role in advocating for the equal rights of African Americans as an organist and teacher. Moreover, Parks had a history with the bus driver who called police to have her arrested on December 1, Parks recalled: That particular day was not the first time I had trouble with that particular driver.
He evicted me before, because I would not go around to the back door after I was already onto the bus. The evening that I boarded the bus, and noticed that he was the same driver, I decided to get on anyway. Although their actions were not part of larger planned protests, McGuire states that Parks seized an opportunity to resist segregation ordi- nances that fateful day in According to Stewart , Ralph D.
Parks] to become a symbolic of our protest movement 93— The LRA was instrumental in raising funds to hire the Culver firm and publicizing her ordeal on the streetcar in abolitionist newspapers run by Horace Greeley and Frederick Doug- lass. Moreover, Jennings was also aware of her class status. Judge Rockwell ruled that the Third Avenue Railway Company violated common carrier laws, which stipulated that all paying passengers on public conveyances had an expectation of punctual and safe accommodations Welke , These similarities highlight historic parallels between Parks and Jen- nings in two ways.
First, both were African American women who were educated and aware of racial discrimination and methods of protest. They were well-connected to organizations that supported their challenges to segregation on public transportationand garnered praise from notable civil rights leaders. As a result, they are credited with laying the groundwork for other activists to continue their work of achieving civil rights for African Americans and other disenfran- chised citizens.
However, there are also significant differences between them. These differences include their socio-economic statuses, how they were effected by their respective acts of resistance, and their por- trayals in Black Freedom narratives that often appear in the social studies curriculum.
First, Jennings and Parks hailed from very dissimilar socio-economic backgrounds. These family obligations caused her to cease her formal schooling when she was a teenager.
Second, Jennings and Parks experienced the effects of their acts of resis- tance in starkly different ways.
Jennings was never arrested after being ejected from the streetcar and continued to teach, even after getting married and having a child.
Typically, women during the 19th century who married had to give up their teaching jobs; however, Jennings remained employed under her married name with a child. She remained involved in matters of civil rights and education in her old age by becoming a co-founder of the first black kindergarten in PERROTTA her ordeal with the death of her parents, son, and husband, she had ample political, financial, and social support in pursuing her lawsuit, career, and family life.
Rosa Parks did not have an easy life after her arrest. She was charged with violating Chapter 6 section 11 of the Montgomery City Code of which stipulates: It shall be unlawful for any passenger to refuse or fail to take a seat among those assigned to the race to which he belongs, at the request of any such employee in charge, if there is such a seat vacant http: Although her conviction was overturned, Parks endured being apprehended, fingerprinted, had her mug shot taken, and held in jail until she made bail.
This experience posed major repercussions for her and her husband. After the Boycott, Rosa and Raymond lost their jobs. The couple struggled economically, moving to Virginia and eventually settling in Michigan. Additionally, both were plagued with serious health issues. Rosa suffered from ulcers, and Raymond passed away in Theoharis Third, an important difference between Parks and Jennings is that the former is a famous historical figure, but the latter is not. There are a few reasons why Jennings is not a widely recognized person in United States history.
The rise of television during the s provided a medium for Americans to see the news unfold in places in the country that were far away from where they lived. Images of police brutality, the speeches of leaders like Martin Luther King, Jr. Another factor for the limited availability of primary sources on Jen- nings is that few documents written by or about her exist. Perrotta and Bohan also acknowledge in their biography of Jennings that limited documents about Jennings are accessible.
Since , more docu- ments have become available. The Kansas Historical Society possesses an article by H.
Cordelia Ray about the first black kindergarten Jennings was involved in co-founding in Manhattan. New York City Direc- tories and U. Sources accessed from Ancestry. Both women were well-connected with influential organizations that supported their actions and organized local action to challenge and overturn segregation- ist policies concerning public transportation. Other black women, such as Claudette Colvin and the unnamed woman from New York, were subjected to ejection from mass transit, yet they are either unknown or relegated to being a footnote in historical narratives.
Parks and Jennings are different in several key aspects. Jennings came from a prominent abolitionist family with important ties to church and abolitionist groups that raised funds to hire the prominent Culver law firm to represent her case in New York Supreme Court.
She had financial and political resources at her disposal that supported her after her ejection from the streetcar and in her career as a teacher even after she was married with a child. Parks, however, did not possess the same socio-economic resources Jennings did.
She and her husband suffered from unemploy- ment, financial stress, and illness after her arrest, eventually relocating to Michigan. Parks remains an iconic civil rights figure greatly in part to the fact her arrest and the Montgomery Bus Boycott was photographed and nationally televised. However, the different socio-economic and political backgrounds from which Parks and Jennings came from highlights how the experiences of black activists were more nuanced with regard to how they personally benefitted and suf- fered as a result of their actions.
Contextualization is a major aspect of historical inquiry. Although contextualization is important to promote historical inquiry, many learning standards and curricular materials lack thorough analysis of the historical contexts in which historical people lived. These examples are problematic, for without thorough contextualiza- tion, students can learn a sanitized history that renders figures like Rosa Parks and Elizabeth Jennings as exceptions to the broader experiences and contributions of others throughout history.
Education history scholars and instructors can mitigate misrepresenta- tion of comparisons between Rosa Parks and Elizabeth Jennings in several ways. First, Bickford and Scheutte encourage educators to be aware of gaps in the historical contexts in order to foster critical thinking in historical research and instruction. He supported Rosa's desire to complete her formal education, and she received her high school diploma in Parks was an early activist in the effort to free the "Scottsboro Boys," a celebrated case in the s.
He was an active member and she served as secretary and later youth leader of the local branch. At the time of her arrest, she was preparing for a major youth conference. After the arrest of Rosa Parks, black people of Montgomery and sympathizers of other races organized and promoted a boycott of the city bus line that lasted days.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Contingent with the protest in Montgomery, others took shape throughout the south and the country. They took form as sit-ins, eat-ins, swim-ins and similar methods.